Parent implemented program for teaching toileting skills for children with developmental disabilities
Teaching toileting skills are among the most essential educational objectives for children with developmental disabilities; however, there are few investigations of the utility of various toilet training approaches for children with autism. The purpose of this study is to determine whether “Program for Supporting Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables mothers to acquire the skill of teaching toileting control to their children and for children to acquire day-time toileting control. The results show that children attained toileting skills rapidly and consistently throughout the program. The procedures followed during these activities and the outcomes regarding each participant are discussed.
Ardıç, A., & Cavkaytar, A. (2014). Effective-ness of the modified intensive toilet training method on teaching toilet skills to children with autism. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 263-276.
Ando, H. (1977). Training autistic children to urinate in the toilet through operant conditioning techniques. Journal of Au-tism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 7, 151–163.
Azrin, N. H., Bugle, C., & O’Brien, F. (1971). Behavioral engineering: Two apparatu-ses for toilet training retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 249–253.
Azrin, N. H., & Foxx, R. M. (1971). A rapid method of toilet training the institution-alized retarded. Journal of Applied Be-havior Analysis, 4, 89–99.
Baker B. L., & Brightman, A. J. (1997). Steps to independence: Teaching everyday skills to children with special needs (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Bakker, E., Van Gool, J. D., Van Sprundel, M., Van Der Auwera, C., & Wyndaele, J. J. (2002). Results of a questionnaire evaluating the effects of different met-hods of toilet training on achieving bladder control. BJU international, 90, 456-461.
Bainbridge, N., & Myles, B. S. (1999). The use of priming to introduce toilet train-ing to a child with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Dis-abilities, 14, 106–109.
Barone, J. G., Jasutkar, N., & Schneider, D. (2009). Later toilet training is associat-ed with urge incontinence in children. Journal of Pediatric Urology, 5, 458-461. doi:10.1016/j.jpurol.2009.05.012
Blum, N. J., Taubman, B., & Nemeth, N. (2003). Relationship between age at ini-tiation of toilet training and duration of training: A prospective study. Pedi-atrics, 111, 810–814.
Cicero, F. R., & Pfadt, A. (2002). Investiga-tion of a reinforcement-based toilet tra-ining procedure for children with au-tism. Research in Developmental Dis-abilities, 23, 319–331.
Dalrymple, N. J., & Ruble, L. A. (1992). Toilet training and behaviors of people with autism: Parent views. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22, 265–275.
Dempsey, I. (2005). Legislation, policies and inclusive practices. In P. Foreman (Eds.), Inclusion in action (pp. 35–65). Southbank, Victoria: Thomson.
Didden, R., Sikkema, S. P. E., Bosman, I. T. M., Duker, P. C., & Curfs, L. M. G. (2001). Use of a modified Azrin-Foxx toilet training procedure with individu-als with Angelman syndrome. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual
Disabilities, 14, 64-70. doi:10.1046/j.1468-3148.2001.00047.x Doan, D., & Tous-saint, K. A. (2017). A parent-oriented approach to rapid toilet training. Inter-national Electronic Journal of Elemen-tary Education, 9(2), 473-486.
Ellis, N. R. (1963). Toilet training the se-verely defective patient: An S–R rein-forcement analysis. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 68, 98–103.
Fox, R. M., & Azrin, N. H. (1973). Toilet training the retarded: A rapid program for day and nighttime independent toile-ting. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.
Hanney, N. M., Jostad, C. M., LeBlanc, L. A., Carr, J. E., & Castile, A. J. (2013). Intensive behavioral treatment of uri-nary incontinence of children with au-tism spectrum disorders: An archival analysis of procedures and outcomes from an outpatient clinic. Focus on Au-tism and Other Developmental Disabili-ties, 28(1), 26-31.
Hong, E., & Matson, J. L. (2018). Asses-ment of Toileting Problems. In Hand-book of Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities As-sessment (pp. 453-466). Springer, Cham.
Keen, D., Brannigan, K. L., & Cuskelly, M. (2007). Toilet training for children with autism: The effects of video model-ing. Journal of Developmental and Phy-sical Disabilities, 19(4), 291-303.
Kircaali-İftar, G., Ülke-Kϋrkҫϋoğlu, B., Ҫetin, Ӧ, & Ünlϋ, E. (2009). Intensive daytime toilet training of two children with au-tism: Implementing and monitoring systematically guarantees success! In-ternational Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 1, 117-126. Re-trieved from http://www.int-jecse.net/
Kroeger, K. A., & Sorensen-Burnworth, R. (2009). Toilet training individuals with autism and other developmental disa-bilities: A critical review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 607– 618.
Kroeger, K., & Sorensen, R. (2010). A par-ent training model for toilet training children with autism. Journal of Intel-lectual Disability Research, 54(6), 556-567.
Levato, L. E., Aponte, C. A., Wilkins, J., Travis, R., Aiello, R., Zanibbi, K., ... & Mruzek, D. W. (2016). Use of urine alarms in toilet training children with in-tellectual and developmental disabili-ties: A review. Research in develop-mental disabilities, 53, 232-241.
LeBlanc, L. A., Carr, J. E., Crossett, S. E., Bennett, C. M., & Detweiler, D. (2005). Intensive outpatient behavioral treat-ment of primary urinary incontinence of children with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20, 98–105.
Lee, C. Y. Q., Anderson, A., & Moore, D. W. (2014). Using video modeling to toilet train a child with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabili-ties, 26(2), 123-134.
Luiselli, J. K. (1994). Toilet training children with sensory impairments in a residen-tial school setting. Behavioral Interven-tions, 9, 105-114.
Macias M. M., Roberts K. M., Saylor C. F., Fussell J. J. (2006) Toileting con-cerns, parenting stress, and behav-iorproblems in children with special health care needs. Clinical Pediatrics 45,415–22.
McLay, L., Carnett, A., van der Meer, L., & Lang, R. (2015). Using a video model-ing-based intervention package to toi-let train two children with au-tism. Jour-nal of Developmental and Physical Di-sabilities, 27(4), 431-451.
Mruzek, D. W., McAleavey, S., Loring, W. A., Butter, E., Smith, T., McDonnell, E.,... & Taylor, C. M. (2017). A pilot in-vestigation of an iOS-based app for toilet training children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. doi:10.1177/1362361317741741
Richards, S. B., Taylor, R. L., & Rama-samy, R. (2014). Single Subject Re-search: Applications in Educational and Clinical Setting. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Schum, T. R., Kolb, T. M., McAuliffe, T. L., Simms, M. D., Underhill, R. L., & Lew-is, M. (2002). Sequential acquisition of toilet training skills: A descriptive study of gender and age differences innor-mal children. Pediatrics, 109, E48.
Peeters, B., Noens, I., Kuppens, S., & Ben-ninga, M. A. (2016). Toilet training in children with a functional defecation disorder and concomitant symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 26, 91-98.
Tsai, L., Stewart, M. A., & August, G. (1981). Implication of sex differences in the familial transmission of infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Devel-opmental Disorders, 11, 165–173.
Whiteley, P. (2004). Developmental behav-ioral and somatic factors in pervasive developmental disorders: Preliminary analysis. Child: Care, Health and De-velopment, 30, 5–11.
Williams, G., Oliver, J. M., Allard, A., & Sears, L. (2003). Autism and associat-ed medical and familial factors: A case control study. Journal of Developmen-tal and Physical Disabilities, 15, 335– 349.
Wingate, H. V., Falcomata, T. S., & Fergu-son, R. (2017). In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Clinical guide to toilet training children (pp. 119–167). Cham: Springer Nature.
Yin, Robert K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Zainal, Z. (2007). Case study as a research method. Jurnal Kemanusiaan, 9, 1-6.
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
I accept that the Owner of International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, the Editor, Associate Editors, Reviewers and the Editorial Board cannot be hold responsible regarding the scope, the findings, the discussion and conclusion of the manuscript submitted.
I declare to the editorship of International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education that the manuscript is original and has not been published anywhere else or is not under evaluation process for any other journal.
I approve that I grant International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education as the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright of my manuscript concurring with article 5846 / 22-23-25 while I retain copyright in the work.