Toilet training individuals with developmental delays: A comprehensive review

Keywords: Toilet Training Individuals with Developmental Delays


Acquisition of toileting skills is of vital significance for children with developmental disabilities (DD) because individuals with DD are often delayed in or fail acquiring these skills. The purpose of the study is to comprehensively review the studies demonstrating the effectiveness of toilet training for children with DD between 2009 and 2019. In this literature search, four databases (ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost, Wiley Online Library and SpringerLink) were searched by using eight keywords and a total of 1360 studies were identified. The studies were evaluated in terms of eligibility criteria and 23 studies were included in the review. Authors examined the studies by the demographic, methodological and outcome characteristics. The review highlighted that toilet training programs, packages or protocols are developed according to researchers’ preferences and participant characteristics, as such, there is still no agreement on a common toileting program in literature. Directions for future research are also discussed.


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How to Cite
Saral, D., & Ulke-Kurkcuoglu, B. (2020). Toilet training individuals with developmental delays: A comprehensive review. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 12(1), 120-137.