An investigation of the opinions and suggestions of parents and teachers about the teaching of play skills to children with autism spectrum disorders
The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions and suggestions of parents who have children with between the ages of three and seven who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the teachers working with them. A semi-structured interview form was prepared and the final version was validated by seven experts in the field. Easily-accessible case sampling method was applied to determine the participants. Interviews were conducted with 15 selected parents and 15 teachers. The data obtained from the opinions were analyzed descriptively. The findings showed that both parents and teachers defined the play skills as an activity that supports the child's developmental areas. The demonstration of the play skills of children with ASD shows that they find teaching various skills and concepts through games necessary, as well as supporting the play development area of the child. Finally, both parents and teachers were found to need visual material for the teaching of play skills to the child diagnosed with ASD.
Adak Özdemir, A., & Ramazan, O. (2014). Pre-school teachers' views on the play. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 3(4), 298-308.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Dianostic and statistical manual of mental disorder five edition. Washing-ton DC: APA.
Aslan, K., Karamustafaoğlu, O. & Kurt, M. (2018). Teaching "The Internal Organs" to students with autism with an educa-tional play. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniver-sitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 18 (4), 1887-1902. https://doi.org/10.17240/aibuefd.2018.18.41844-456957
Baker, M. J. (2000). Incorporating the the-matic ritualistic behaviors of children with autism into games: Increasing so-cial play interactions with siblings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interven-tions, 2, 66–84. https://doi.org/10.1177/109830070000200201
Barton, E. E., Chen, C., Pribble, L., Pomes, M. & Kim, Y. (2013). Coaching preserv-ice teachers to teach play skills to children with disabilities. Teacher Edu-cation and Special Education, 36(4), 330-349. https://doi.org/10.1177/0888406413505113
Barton, E.E. & Wolery, M. (2010). Training teachers to promote pretend play in young children with disabilities. Excep-tional Children, 77(1), 85-106. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440291007700104
Bernard-Opitz, V., Sriram, N., & Sapuan, S. (1999). Enhancing vocal imitations in children with autism using the IBM speech viewer. Autism, 3, 131 -147. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361399003002004
Boudreau, E., & D’Entremont, B. (2010). Improving the pretend play skills of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders: The effects of video model-ing. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 22, 414-431. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-010-9201-5
Brett, A., Valle Riestra, D. M., Fischer, M., Rothlein, L., & Hughes, M. T. (2002). Play İn Preschool Classrooms: Per-ceptions of Teachers and Children. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Ed-ucation, 23(1), 71-79. https://doi.org/10.1080/1090102020230112
Brown, J., & Murray, D. (2001). Strategies for enhancing play skills for children with autism spectrum disor-der. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabili-ties, 312-317.
Campbell, J. L., Quincy, C., Osserman, J., & Pedersen, O. K. (2013). Coding in-depth semi- structured interviews: Problems of unitization and intercoder reliability and agreement. Sociological Methods & Research, 42, 294–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124113500475
Cardon, T. A. (2007). Initiations and interac-tions: Early intervention techniques for parents of children with autism spec-trum disorders. Kansas: Autism As-perger Publishing.
Chan, P., Chen, C., Feng, H., Lee, Y. & Chen, K. (2016). Theory of mind deficit is associated with pretend play per-formance, but not playfulness, in chil-dren with autism spectrum disorder. Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy, 28, 43-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hkjot.2016.09.002
Cimsir, E. & Hunt, B. (2018) Students with Disabilities: Practical Information for School Counselors in Turkey. Int J Adv Counselling. 40, 122–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-017-9315-x
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approach-es. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Davis, B.J., & Summers, M. (2015). Appl-ying Dale's Cone of Experience to inc-rease learning and retention: A study of student learning in a foundational leadership course. (Engineering Lea-ders Conference 2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.5339/qproc.2015.elc2014.6
D'Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 5-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/10983007030050010801
DiCarlo, C. F. & Reid, D. H. (2004). Increas-ing pretend toy play of toddlers with disabilities in an inclusive setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2004.37-197
Diken, İ. H., Ardıc, A., & Diken, Ö. (2011). GOBDÖ-2-TV-Gilliam Autistic Disorder Rating Scale-2-Turkish Version. Anka-ra: Maya Publishing House.
Doganay, J. (1998). Examining the opinions of parents of children attending kin-dergarten about children's play and toys. Unpublished Master Thesis. An-kara: Ankara University.
Dunlop, L. (2009). An introduction to early childhood special education: Birth to age five. New Jersey: Pearson Educa-tion Inc.
Erbay, F., & Durmuşoglu Saltalı, N. (2012). The place of the game in the daily life of the children of the age of six and the perception of play of the mothers. Ahi Evran University Kırşehir Education Faculty Journal (KEFAD), 13(2), 249-264.
Erden, S. (2001). Investigation of parents' and teachers' views on children's plays and toys in kindergartens. Unpublished Master's Thesis. Ankara University, In-stitute of Science and Technology, Ankara.
Fisher, J., (2008). Starting with the child. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
Freeman, S., & Kasari, C. (2013). Parent–child interactions in autism: Character-istics of play. Autism, 17(2), 147-161. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361312469269
Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2009). Educational research: Compe-tencies for analysis and application (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Giren, S. (2016). Early childhood education teachers’ metaphors about play con-cept for preschoolers. Journal of Theo-ry and Practice in Education, 12(1), 372-388.
Halmatov, S. (2017). Practical techniques in play therapy (revised / center 3rd edi-tion)). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
Hine, J. F., & Wolery, M. (2006). Using point-of-view video modeling to teach play to preschoolers with au-tism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 26(2), 83-93. https://doi.org/10.1177/02711214060260020301
Hobson, R. P., Lee, A., & Hobson, J. A. (2009). Qualities of symbolic play among children with autism: A social-developmental perspective. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 12-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-008-0589-z
Hoorn, V., Nourot, J., Scales, P. M. & Alward, K. R. (2015). Play at the center of the curriculum (6. Baskı). Cambrid-ge: Pearson Press.
Jarmakowicz, P. (2015). Improving Pretend Play Skills of Children with Autism Us-ing the Point-of-view Modeling and Mul-tiple Video Exemplars (Doctoral disser-tation, California State University, Stanislaus).
Jarrold, C., Boucher, J., & Smith, P. (1996). Generativity deficits in pretend play in autism. Journal of Developmental Psy-chology, 14, 275–300.
Johnson, J. E., Christie, J. F., & Wardle, F. (2005). Play, development, and early education. Pearson: Allyn and Bacon.
Jung, S., & Sainato, D. M. (2013). Teaching play skills to young children with au-tism. Journal of Intellectual and Devel-opmental Disability, 38, 74-90. https://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2012.732220
Kasari, C., Freeman, S., & Paparella, T. (2006). Joint attention and symbolic play in young children with autism: a randomized controlled intervention study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 611–620. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01567.x
Kay, R., & Kletskin, I. (2012). Evaluating the use of problem-based video podcasts to teach mathematics in higher educa-tion. Computers & Education, 59(2), 619-627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.03.007
Lewis, V. (2003). Play and language in chil-dren with autism. Autism, 7(4), 391-399. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361303007004005
Lifter, K., Ellis, J., Cannon, B., & Anderson, S. R. (2005). Developmental specificity in targeting and teaching play activities to children with pervasive developmen-tal disorders. Journal of Early Interven-tion, 27(4), 247-267. https://doi.org/10.1177/105381510502700405
Lifter, K., Foster-Sanda, S., Arzamarski, C., Briesch, J., & McClure, E. (2011). Overview of play: Its uses and im-portance in early intervention/early childhood special education. Infants & Young Children, 24, 225-245. https://doi.org/10.1097/IYC.0b013e31821e995c
Lifter, K., Mason, E. J. & Barton, E. E. (2011). Children’s play: Where we have been and where we could go. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 281-297. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053815111429465
Lifter, K., Sulzer-Azaroff, B., Anderson, S. & Cowdery, G. E. (1993). Teaching play activities to preschool children with disabilities: The importance of de-velopmental considerations. Journal of Early Intervention, 17, 139–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/105381519301700206
Lin, C. C., & Tseng, Y. F. (2012). Videos and animations for vocabulary learn-ing: A study on difficult words. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technol-ogy-TOJET, 11(4), 346-355.
Lodico, M. G., Spaulding, D. T., & Voegtle, K. H. (2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice. Wiley: San Francisco.
MacDonald, R., Clark, M., Garrigan, E., & Vangala, M. (2005). Using video mod-eling to teach pretend play to children with autism. Behavioral Interventions: Theory & Practice in Residential & Community‐Based Clinical Pro-grams, 20(4), 225-238. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.197
MacDonald, R., Sacramone, S., Mansfield, R., Wiltz, K., & Ahearn, W. H. (2009). Using video modeling to teach recip-rocal pretend play to children with au-tism. Journal of Applied Behavior Anal-ysis, 42, 43-55. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2009.42-43
Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implemention. JosseyBass: San Francisco.
Miles, M. & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualita-tive data analysis (2nd ed). London: Sage Pub.
Nikopoulos, C., & Keenan M. (2006). Video modelling and behaviour analysis: A guide for teaching social skills to chil-dren with autism. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publisher.,
Odluyurt, S. (2013). A comparison of the effects of teaching direct modeling and video modeling to children with autistic characteristics who continue to integrate by their peers. Educational Sciences in Theory and Practice, 13(1), 523-540.
O'Riordan, M. A. (2004). Superior visual search in adults with autism. Au-tism, 8, 229-248. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361304045219
Ozonoff, S., Macari, S., Young, G. S., Goldring, S., Thompson, M., & Rog-ers, S. J. (2008). Atypical object explo-ration at 12 months of age is associat-ed with autism in a prospective sam-ple. Autism, 12(5), 457-472. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361308096402
Quill, K. (1997) Instructional considerations for young children with autism: The ra-tionale for visually cued instruction. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 697- 714.
Paterson, C. R., & Arco, L. (2007). Using video modeling for generalizing toy play in children with autism. Behavior modification, 31(5), 660-681. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445507301651
Reagon, K. A., Higbee, T. S., & Endicott, K. (2006). Teaching pretend play skills to a student with autism using video modeling with a sibling as model and play partner. Education and Treatment of Children,25, 517-528.
Reynolds, J, Caley, L & Mason, R (2002) How Do People Learn?, Chartered Ins-titute of Personnel and Development: London.
Rothlein, L., and Brett, A. (1987). Children's, teachers; and parents' perceptions of play. Early Childhood Research Quar-terly, 2(1), 45-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-2006(87)90012-3
Russ, S. (2003). Play and creativity: devel-opmental issues. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47(3), 291–303. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313830308594
Rutherford, M. D., Young, G. S., Hepburn, S., & Rogers, S. J. (2007). A longitudi-nal study of pretend play in au-tism. Journal of Autism and Develop-mental Disorders, 37(6), 1024-1039. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0240-9
Rutherford, M. D., & Rogers, S. J. (2003). The cognitive underpinnings of pretend play in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(3), 289–302. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024406601334
Sancho, K., Sidener, T. M., Reeve, S. A., & Sidener, D. W. (2010). Two variations of video modeling interventions for teaching play skills to children with au-tism. Education and Treatment of Chil-dren, 33(3), 421-442. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.0.0097
Scarlett, W. G., Naudeau, S., Salonius-Pasternak, D., & Ponte, I. (2005). Chil-dren’s play. California: Sage Publica-tions.
Schreiber, B. E., Fukuta, J., & Gordon, F. (2010). Live lecture versus video pod-cast in undergraduate medical educa-tion: A randomised controlled tri-al. BMC medical education, 10(1), 68-74. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-10-68
Sherratt, D. (2002). Developing pretend play in children with autism: A case study. Autism, 6(2), 169–179. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361302006002004
Smaldino, S. E., Lowther, D. L., & Russell, J. D. (2007). Instructional technology and media for learning (9 th ed). Co-lombus: Merrill.
Swindells, D., & Stegnitti, K. (2006). Pre-tend play and parents’ view of social competence: The construct validity of the child-initiated pretend play as-sessment. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 53(4), 314-324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1630.2006.00592.x
Tezel Sahin, F. (1993). Investigation of the views of three-six-year-age group chil-dren's parents on children's plays and toys. Hacettepe University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Child Health and Education, Thesis, Ankara.
Toth, K., Munson, J., Meltzoff, A. N., & Dawson, G. (2006). Early predictors of communication development in young children with autism spectrum disorder: joint attention, imitation, and toy play. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(8), 993–1005. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0137-7
Trevlas, E., Matsouka, O., & Zachopoulou, E. (2003). Relationship between play-fulness and motor creativity in pre-school children. Early Child Develop-ment and Care, 173(5), 535–543. https://doi.org/10.1080/0300443032000070482
Tugrul, B., Aslan, O. M., Erturk, G., & Altınkaynak, S. O. (2014). Analysis of Preschool Teachers’ and Six Years Old Children’s Views on Play. İnönü Ün-iversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 15(1), 97-116.. https://doi.org/10.17679/iuefd.05509
Ungerer, J. A. & Sigman, M. (1981). Sym-bolic play and language comprehen-sion in autistic children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20(2), 318-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-7138(09)60992-4
Unal, F. (2017). Metaphorical perceptions of preschool teacher candidates about the concept of “game”. Route Educa-tional and Social Science Journal, 4(5) 407-426. http://dx.doi.org/10.17121/ressjournal.756
Yalın, H. I., (2006). Instructional technolo-gies and material development. Ankara: Nobel Broadcast Distribution.
Zhang, D., Zhou, L., Briggs, R. O., & Nunamaker Jr, J. F. (2006). Instruction-al video in e-learning: Assessing the impact of interactive video on learning effectiveness. Information & manage-ment, 43(1), 15-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2005.01.004
Warreyn, P., Van Der Paelt, S., & Roeyers, H. (2014). Social-communicative abili-ties as treatment goals for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder: the importance of imitation, joint atten-tion, and play. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 56(8), 712-716. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.12455
Whitebread, D., Coltman, P., Jameson, H., & Lander, R. (2009). Play, cognition and self-regulation: What exactly are children learning when they learn through play? Educational and Child Psychology, 26(2), 40-52.
Williams, E., Reddy, V., & Costall, A. (2001). Taking a closer look at func-tional play in children with au-tism. Journal of autism and develop-mental disorders, 31(1), 67-77. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1005665714197
Wolfberg, P. J. (2003). Peer play and the autism spectrum: The art of guiding children’s socialization and imagination. Kansas: Autism Asperger Publishing Company.
Wolfberg, P. J. (1995) Case illustrations of emerging social relations and symbolic activity in children with autism through supported peer play. Doctoral disser-tation, University of California at Berkeley with San Francisco State University. Dissertation Abstracts Interna-tional.
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
I accept that the Owner of International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, the Editor, Associate Editors, Reviewers and the Editorial Board cannot be hold responsible regarding the scope, the findings, the discussion and conclusion of the manuscript submitted.
I declare to the editorship of International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education that the manuscript is original and has not been published anywhere else or is not under evaluation process for any other journal.
I approve that I grant International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education as the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright of my manuscript concurring with article 5846 / 22-23-25 while I retain copyright in the work.