Early signs of specific learning disabilities in early childhood

Keywords: Specific learning disabilities, early intervention, early symptoms, preschool, early childhood

Abstract

Since comprehensive evaluation of academic skills cannot be extensively conducted in early childhood, specific learning disabilities cannot be diagnosed in preschool-aged children. To evaluate academic skills, children must be school-aged and interventions cannot begin in the preschool period. However, specific learning disabilities in children may also be noticed during preschool. Preschool teachers need to determine which kids are at risk of having specific learning disabilities so that they can be detected early and an intervention provided. Preschool teachers need to be aware of the early signs of specific learning disabilities to distinguish between typically developing children and those at risk of having specific learning disabilities. In this review, studies describing the preschool characteristics of students at risk of having specific learning disabilities are examined, and the early signs of specific learning disabilities and early intervention processes are described based on the literature. Research suggests that the signs of specific learning disabilities can be seen in early childhood. The need for preschool teachers and families to be sensitive to the characteristics of children at risk of specific learning disabilities in the context of early intervention is discussed.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Agostin, T. M., & Bain, S. K. (1997). Predicting early school success with developmental and social skills screeners. Psychology in the Schools, 34(3), 219-228. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(199707)34:3<219::AID-PITS4>3.0.CO;2-J

Al-Yagon, M. (2003). Children at risk for learning disorders: Multiple perspectives. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(4), 318-335. https://doi.org/10.1177/00222194030360040401

Bast, J., & Reitsma, P. (1998). Analyzing the development of individual differences in terms of Matthew effects in reading: Results from a Dutch longitudinal study. Developmental Psy-chology, 34(6), 1373-1399. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.34.6.1373

Binsted, G., Chua, R., Helsen, W., & Elliott, D. (2001). Eye–hand coordination in goal-directed aiming. Human Movement Science, 20(4), 563-585. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-9457(01)00068-9

Bishop, D. V., & Adams, C. (1990). A prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31(7), 1027-1050. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1990.tb00844.x

Caravolas, M., Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2001). The foundations of spelling ability: Evi-dence from a 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of Memory and Language, 45(4), 751-774. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2000.2785

Carroll, J. M., & Snowling, M. J. (2004). Language and phonological skills in children at high risk of reading difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(3), 631-640. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00252.x

Catts, H. W., Fey, M. E., Tomblin, J. B., & Zhang, X. (2002). A longitudinal investigation of reading outcomes in children with language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45(6), 1142-1157. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2002/093)

Coleman, M. R., Buysse, V., & Neitzel, J. (2006). Recognition and response: An early intervening system for young children at risk for learning disabilities. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, FPG Child Development Institute.

Coyne, M. D., Kame'enui, E. J., Simmons, D. C., & Harn, B. A. (2004). Beginning reading inter-vention as inoculation or insulin first-grade reading performance of strong responders to kindergarten intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(2), 90-104. https://doi.org/10.1177/00222194040370020101

Çakıroğlu, O. (2018). Özel öğrenme güçlüğüne giriş [Introduction to specific learning disabili-ties]. In M. A. Melekoğlu & U. Sak (Eds.), Öğrenme güçlüğü ve özel yetenek [Learning disa-bilities and giftedness] (pp. 1-22), Ankara: Pegem Akademi. https://doi.org/10.14527/9786053188049.01

Dunlap, L. L. (2009). An introduction to early childhood special education, birth to age five. Bos-ton, MA: Pearson Education.

Dunst, C. J. (2000). Revisiting "rethinking early intervention". Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20(2), 95-104. https://doi.org/10.1177/027112140002000205

Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (1997). The case for early reading intervention. In B. A. Blachman (Ed.), Foundations of reading acquisi-tion and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention (pp. 243-264). Mahwah, NJ, US: Law-rence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Foy, J. G., & Mann, V. (2003). Home literacy environment and phonological awareness in pre-school children: Differential effects for rhyme and phoneme awareness. Applied Psycho-linguistics, 24(1), 59-88. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716403000043

Hallahan, P. H., Kauffman, J. M. (2000). Exceptional learners, introduction to special education, eight edition, NewYork, NY: Allyn and Bacon.

Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Lloyd, J. (1999). Introduction to learning disabilities (2nd edition). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Hallahan, D.P., Llyod, J. W., Kauffman, J. M., Weiss, M. P., & Martinez, E. A. (2005). Learning disabilities: Foundations, characteristics, and effective teaching (3rd edition).NewYork, NY: Pearson.

Høien, T., Lundberg, I., Stanovich, K. E., & Bjaalid, I. K. (1995). Components of phonological awareness. Reading and Writing, 7(2), 171-188. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01027184

Lyytinen, H., Aro, M., Eklund, K., Erskine, J., Guttorm, T., Laakso, M. L., Leppfinen, P. H. T., Lyytinen, P., Poikkeus, A., Richardson, U. & Torppa, M. (2004). The development of chil-dren at familial risk for dyslexia: Birth to early school age. Annals of dyslexia, 54(2), 184-220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-004-0010-3

Malouf, D. B., & Schiller, E. P. (1995). Practice and research in special education. Exceptional Children, 61(5), 414-424. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440299506100502

Mazzocco, M. M., & Thompson, R. E. (2005). Kindergarten predictors of math learning disabil-ity. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 20(3), 142-155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2005.00129.x

McClelland, M. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2003). The emergence of learning-related social skills in preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,18(2), 206-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(03)00026-7

Ministry of National Education [MEB]. (2018). Özel Eğitim Hizmetleri Yönetmeliği [Special Edu-cation Services Regulation]. 07.07.2018 tarih ve 30471 sayılı Resmi Gazete [Official Ga-zette dated 7.07.2018 and numbered 30471].

Meyen, E. (1995). A commentary on special education. In E. Meyen & T. Skrtic (Ed.), Special Education and Student Disability: An Introduction (pp. 7-31). Denver: Love Publishing Com-pany.

Mercer, C. M. (1997). Students with learning disabilities (5th edition). Boston, MA: Prentice-Hall.

Most, T., Al-Yagon, M., Tur-Kaspa, H., & Margalit, M. (2000). Phonological awareness, peer nominations, and social competence among preschool children at risk for developing learning disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 47(1), 89-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/103491200116156

Mustard, J. F. (2002). Early child development and the brain-the base for health, learning, and behavior throughout life. In Young, M. (Ed.), From early child development to human devel-opment: Investing in our children's future, (pp. 23-61). Washington, DC: World Bank.

Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M. J., & Stevenson, J. (2004). Phonemes, rimes, vocabulary, and grammatical skills as foundations of early reading development: Evidence from a lon-gitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 40(5), 665-681. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.5.665

Müller, K., & Brady, S. (2001). Correlates of early reading performance in a transparent orthog-raphy. Reading and Writing, 14(7-8), 757-799. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012217704834

NCLD. (2007). No Child Left Behind Act. 20 U.S.C. § 6319.

O'Connor, R. E., & Jenkins, J. R. (1999). Prediction of reading disabilities in kindergarten and first grade. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(2), 159-197. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0302_4

O'Shaughnessy, T. E., Lane, K. L., Gresham, F. M., & Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E. (2003). Chil-dren placed at risk for learning and behavioral difficulties implementing a school-wide sys-tem of early identification and intervention. Remedial and Special Education, 24(1), 27-35. https://doi.org/10.1177/074193250302400103

Özmert, E. N. (2008). Dünya’da ve Türkiye’de aşılama takvimindeki gelişmeler [Progress in the national immunization practices in the world and in Turkey]. Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Dergisi [Journal of Child Health and Diseases], 51(3), 168-175.

Özyürek, M. (2010). Öğrenme güçlüğü olan çocukların eğitimi [Education of children with learn-ing difficulties]. In A. G. Akçamete (Ed.), Genel eğitim okullarında özel gereksinimi olan öğrenciler ve özel eğitim [Students with special needs in general education schools and spe-cial education] (pp. 315-336). Ankara: Kök Yayıncılık.

Pennington, B. F., & Lefly, D. L. (2001). Early reading development in children at family risk for dyslexia. Child Development, 72(3), 816-833. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00317

Pickering, J. S. (2002). Signals of learning disabilities at various developmental stages. Chil-dren with Disabilities, Montessori Life, 14(3), 46-48.

Proctor-Williams, K., & Fey, M. E. (2007). Recast density and acquisition of novel irregular past tense verbs. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(4), 1029-1047. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/072)

Rescorla, L. (2002). Language and reading outcomes to age 9 in late talking toddlers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 45, 360–371. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0602639103

Ridler, K., Veijola, J. M., Tanskanen, P., Miettunen, J., Chitnis, X., Suckling, J., ... & Bullmore, E. T. (2006). Fronto-cerebellar systems are associated with infant motor and adult execu-tive functions in healthy adults but not in schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Acad-emy of Sciences, 103(42), 15651-15656. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0602639103

Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Pianta, R. C., & Cox, M. J. (2000). Teachers’ judgments of problems in the transition to kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15(2), 147-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(00)00049-1

Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Carlson, C. D., & Foorman, B. R. (2004). Kindergarten prediction of reading skills: A longitudinal comparative analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(2), 265-282. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.96.2.265

Shonkoff, J., & Phillips, D. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Smith, C. R. (1994). Learning disabilities, the interaction of learner, task, and setting (3rd edition). Allyn and Bacon.

Smits-Engelsman, B. C., Wilson, P. H., Westenberg, Y., & Duysens, J. (2003). Fine motor defi-ciencies in children with developmental coordination disorder and learning disabilities: An underlying open-loop control deficit. Human Movement Science, 22, 495–513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2003.09.006

Snowling, M., Bishop, D. V. M., & Stothard, S. E. (2000). Is preschool language impairment a risk factor for dyslexia in adolescence? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(5), 587-600. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00651

Steele, M. M. (2004). Making the case for early identification and intervention for young children at risk for learning disabilities. Early Childhood Education Journal, 32(2), 75-79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-004-1072-x

Taylor, H. G., Anselmo, M., Foreman, A. L., Schatschneider, C., & Angelopoulos, J. (2000). Utility of kindergarten teacher judgments in identifying early learning problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(2), 200-210. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221940003300208

Thal, D., Jackson-Maldonado, D., & Acosta, D. (2000). Validity of a parent-report measures of vocabulary and grammar for Spanish speaking toddlers. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Disorders, 43(5), 1087–1100. https://doi.org/10.1044/jslhr.4305.1087

Thal, D. J., O'Hanlon, L., Clemmons, M., & Fralin, L. (1999). Validity of a parent report measure of vocabulary and syntax for preschool children with language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42(2), 482-496. https://doi.org/10.1044/jslhr.4202.482

Torgesen, J. K., & Davis, C. (1996). Individual difference variables that predict response to training in phonological awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 63, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1996.0040

US Department of Education. (2018). 40th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2018. Washington, DC: Author.

Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading dis-ability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psy-chology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 2-40. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-9630.2003.00305.x

Vervaeke, S. L., McNamara, J. K., & Scissons, M. (2007). Kindergarten screening for reading disabilities. Journal of Applied Research on Learning, 1(1), 1-19.

Vuijk, P. J., Hartman, E., Mombarg, R., Scherder, E., & Visscher, C. (2011). Associations between academic and motor performance in a heterogeneous sample of children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(3) 276–282. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219410378446

Walker, H. M., & Shinn, M. R. (2002). Structuring school-based interventions to achieve inte-grated primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention goals for safe and effective schools. In M. A. Shinn, H. M. Walker, G. Stoner, (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior prob-lems II: Preventive and remedial approaches, (pp. 1-25). Bethesda, MD: National Associa-tion of School Psychologists.

Wise, J. C., Sevcik, R. A., Morris, R. D., Lovett, M. W., & Wolf, M. (2007). The relationship among receptive and expressive vocabulary, listening comprehension, pre-reading skills, word identification skills, and reading comprehension by children with reading disabilities. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(4), 1093-1109. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/076)

Wolery, M., & Bailey, D. B. (2002). Early childhood special education research. Journal of Early Intervention, 25(2), 88-99. https://doi.org/10.1177/105381510202500204

Published
2020-04-22
How to Cite
Balikci, O., & Melekoglu, M. A. (2020). Early signs of specific learning disabilities in early childhood. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 12(1), 84-95. https://doi.org/10.20489/intjecse.722383